1999年度立教大学アメリカ研究所主催 研究所設立60周年記念公開講演会
Democracy: A Shared Value
民主主義――その価値の共有にむけて
トーマス・S・フォーリー駐日米国大使

日時:
1999年12月6日(月)13:00-14:00
場所:
立教大学池袋キャンパス
太刀川記念館3F多目的ホール
講演者:
トーマス・S・フォーリー駐日米国大使
司会:
阿部珠理(研究所所長・本学教授)
通訳:
実松克義(本学社会学部助教授)
要予約(アメリカ研究所にご連絡ください。) 

 

Lecture by Ambassador Thomas S. Foley
トーマス・S・フォーリー駐日米国大使講演
Democracy: A Shared Value
民主主義──その普遍的価値の共有に向けて
12/06/1999, Tachikawa Hall, Rikkyo University
 

CONTENTS

 
RIKKYO UNIVERSITY AND INSTITUTE FOR AMERICAN STUDIES
 
President Ohashi, Chairman Matsuzaki, Professor Abe, members of the faculty, students, ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon. It's a great pleasure for me to join you as Rikkyo University marks two important milestones ── the 125th anniversary of the founding of this distinguished institution of higher learning and the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the Institute for American Studies.
Rikkyo is one of the many universities in Japan with close and long-standing ties to the United States. The architectural echoes of American universities, especially those on the East Coast, strike a first-time visitor to your campus. Ivy covers the brick walls of buildings whose functions have changed as the university has grown. A few of the clapboard houses, built for American faculty in the Taisho Era, remain. While attendance in chapel is no longer mandatory, the chapel building seems transported from the United States.
The history of Rikkyo University begins in 1874, when an American missionary, the Reverend Channing Moore Williams founded Saint Paul's College at a site near the foreign settlement in Tokyo. In 1859, less than 10 years after Admiral Perry made his famous trip to Japan, the Reverend Williams arrived in Nagasaki, then the only Japanese city open to foreigners in order to minister to the foreign community while studying Japanese. Several years later, he moved to Osaka and established Saint Timothy's School. In 1873, he arrived in Tokyo, recently designated as the nation's capital. The next year, he founded Saint Paul's as a place to bring western learning to the Japanese and to develop the institution where the Japanese could observe the faith and practice of the Christian religion.
Missionaries such as Reverend Williams played a central role in shaping American relations with Asia, especially China and Japan. Soon after we [America] became an independent nation, merchants and missionaries had taken the long, arduous journey to China in search of markets for their goods and converts to their religion. The fabled wealth of China and Japan had fascinated Europeans since the voyage of Marco Polo, and Americans, especially after the borders of our country reached the Pacific Ocean, were keen to extend the frontier across the vast ocean to the new "Far West." While the missionaries started to convert Asians to their religion, they realized that education was a fundamental way to achieve the goal. In encouraging education, they had played an important early role in also propagating American democratic ideals in Asia. From Sapporo to Nagasaki, and Kanto to the Kansai, they opened churches and set up schools that became universities. They took the idea of public service very seriously. Drawing on a religious calling, they saw themselves as altruistic. Reviewing the history of American relations with the Far East Asia in the book Sentimental Imperialist, three American scholars concluded, "America's westward thrust into the far Pacific and East Asia seems to have had a missionary heart, in the secular sense of the term." The consequences turned out to be quite different from the original intentions of the missionaries. But they were certainly one of the forces which helped to spark a transformation of East Asia that continues to this day.
Saint Paul's College grew from a chapel and a few classrooms in a rented house to the present campus in Ikebukuro. While the original faculty members were Bishop Williams and two missionaries, the school grew under the leadership of Bishop Henry St. George Tucker early in this century, moving to the present campus in 1918. A few years later, the college was upgraded to the status of a university with departments of English literature, religion, philosophy and history in the College of Arts and the Department of Commerce in the College of Commerce. Enrollment grew to almost a thousand. There were ambitious plans in the 1930s to expand the university but these were not accomplished.
However, in 1939 a courageous group of Americans and Japanese established the Institute of American Studies. Its purposes were to "open to the public a general reference library on North and South America with special research facilities in the fields of history, literature, economics and foreign policy," and "to disseminate information on America through public lectures and a quarterly magazine on American studies." In the long history of relations between the United States and Japan, in 1939 there was never a time when the Japanese need to study the United States. . . , or the American need to study Japan was greater. Unfortunately, the serious gentle voices of the scholars went largely unheeded as we descended into a war fueled by ignorance on both sides.
 
OUR BILATERAL RELATIONSHIP
 
After emerging from that terrible conflict, over the course of half a century of remarkable effort, visionary leaders on both sides of the Pacific have forged what one of my predecessors, Ambassador Mike Mansfield, called "the most important bilateral relationship in the world . . . bar none." The United States and Japan are now fast friends and allies. Our bilateral security alliance preserves peace in the East Asia area and provides stability needed for the region to prosper economically. Indeed, the United States and Japan are the two leading economies in the world, engaging in an enormous exchange of goods and services, benefiting their own people and people around the world.
But our relationship, our cultural exchange of ideas spans many other dimensions as well. For example, the management theories of Dr. W. Edwards Demming, first overlooked in the United States, became the keystone for Japanese economic development in the 1960s and 70s. Later the study of Demming's work and the application of just-in-time manufacturing, continuous improvement ──"kaizen"──and other management ideas were re-exported back to the United States and contributed to our own economic revival in this decade. Baseball, the most American of sports, has become, as "beisubouru," the most popular sport in Japan. Jazz, often described as the most distinctly American contribution to 20th century culture, has found its second largest audience in Japan. Scholars and students engage in vital exchange of ideas, accelerated by the Internet and the electronic tools that are becoming commonplace as we enter the new century. Another example is that students at a university in California and students at a university in Japan are jointly taking physics courses taught online by professors in both universities.
 
PROUD HERITAGE OF EMBRACING BOLD CHANGE
 
We have achieved this vital, sometimes intimate relationship by emphasizing those fundamental values we have in common. First of these values is openness to new ideas and the changes that they may bring. While we in the United States cannot lay sole claim to having initiated the Industrial Revolution at the beginning of the 19th century or the information revolution taking place around us at this century's end, in both these cases, Americans have taken bold new concepts and wrought wonders, which transformed and continue to transform the way countless numbers of people live and work. America has risen to be the world's largest economy. In the strength of the acceptance and, indeed, encouragement of innovation, places such as Silicon Valley and Redmond, Washington have become symbolic of America's endless drive to recreate itself to make someone's imagined future a present reality.
Similarly, when President Clinton paid his first official visit to Japan in 1993, he told an audience at a university of Tokyo that "Japan has, after all, a proud heritage of embracing bold change when the times call for it. Much of the success that you, Japan, have enjoyed in recent years comes from a phenomenal ability to adapt to the changing contours of the global economy. Over 120 years ago, the leaders of the Meiji Restoration embarked on a series of rapid and successful initiatives that transformed a feudal Japan into a modern society, making it more open to the West without sacrificing the uniqueness of Japanese culture." For, as President Clinton concluded, "To keep the country's doors open wide is a national principle, to which Japan has attached the greatest importance since the earliest days." This is a principle shared with the United States.
But there is another principle of paramount importance. There is another great principle, which we share. Both countries are committed to democratic political systems and to taking steps to advance the spread of democracy. Drawing on their European routes, Americans hold a bedrock belief in the social contract between the Government and the people, and expect the government to provide the framework for equality of opportunity, that is, the degree of transparency, freedom of speech, access to decision-making and legal safeguards necessary for all to have a chance to pursue their various individual goals. Nurtured by its distinct traditions, Japan is a more tightly knit society than that of the United States. At a recent seminar in Japan, Professor Sheldon Garon of Princeton University pointed out that, "To most Japanese, social contracts constitute an essential part of their democracy. However, Japanese tend to define democracy in terms of equality of outcome." That is in contrast to the United States. Social contract in Japan between the government and the people has served to maintain a stable workforce and to foster impressive income equality between the countryside and the cities. While the forms of democracy in the United States and Japan have emerged from differing culture and historic contexts, democracy itself is not questioned. That commonality in values enables us to cooperate in supporting the building of democratic values and institutions in Asia and throughout the world. We are working together to support democratic institution building in East Timor and Bosnia, for example.
 
OUR SHARED VALUES
 
Our cooperation in these and other countries underscores the broad range of other values we hold in common. In 1993, the United States and Japan adopted the so-called "Common Agenda," which has led to joint projects to promote health and human development, to meet the challenges of global stability, to protect the environment and to advance science and technology with a series of cooperative research projects. Today, our two countries are supporting HIV Aids projects in the Philippines, in Thailand and in Vietnam, fighting tropical diseases and parasites in Africa and Latin America and helping a family planning association in Indonesia. A former Director of U.S. AID health projects in the southern African country of Zambia remarked that "in 34 years of overseas experience working with Japan has been the most interesting and fruitful."
Compared to Japan or Korea, Canada or Australia, or the democracies of Western Europe, the United States has chosen a decentralized form of government. Recognizing the limitations of government, Americans have been passionate about starting what James Madison in "The Federalist Papers" called "factions," and what we today call "non-government organizations" (NGOs). The Frenchman, Alexis de Toqueville, whose Democracy in America remains the most famous study of the United States by a foreign observer, noted that "If any Americans want to proclaim a truth or propagate some feeling by encouragement of a general example, they form an association." Consumer groups, labor organizations, environmental activists, advocates for the elderly, veterans' organizations and the civil rights movement have organized citizens to make changes. While they have usually started outside the political system, these groups have come to have a great influence on our government. Thanks to their activism, the United States enjoys safer products, better working conditions, a cleaner environment, health care for veterans and senior citizens, and equal opportunity in housing, education, and employment. Aided by instantaneous communication, these groups promise to play a still more important role in the next century.
Japanese have more confidence in government than Americans. NGOs have consequently played a more limited role in influencing the government. However, the Great Hanshin Earthquake in January 1995 led to a major change in the views of government. Many Japanese realized that the government alone could not deal with an emergency of such vast proportions. On the other hand, local groups mobilized to help stricken citizens. Thousands of volunteers poured in from throughout Japan and many foreign countries, including the United States, to help Kobe and the surrounding area in their time of greatest need. Farmers in my home state of Washington, which has a sister state relationship with Hyogo Prefecture, donated thousands of bushels of apples. The American officers in our Consulate and their families helped distribute these apples as well as oranges and other products sent on an emergency basis from the United States.
Responding to this public sentiment, the Diet adopted legislation that provided the incorporation of NGOs and non-profit organizations (NPOs). In response to economic problems in Japan and elsewhere in Asia, many Japanese citizens have realized [that] the non-governmental sector needs to be strengthened in order to make the government more accountable for its actions. A group of Diet members from several political parties, and a coordinating committee representing the NGO/NPO sector have been formed to create a more favorable legal environment for these groups in Japan and to provide tax incentives for contributions to such groups.
As the United States and Japan understand our differences and build on our similarities, others in the region sometimes assert that peculiarly "Asian values" are the source of the economic miracle of the past 50 years. They maintain that Asians emphasize work, harmony, hierarchy, frugality, human relationships, the family and education in ways that make for fundamental distinctions with the West, especially the United States. Whereas the populations of the vast Asian expanse, which stretches from Japan to India, and Korea to Indonesia, are so diverse in their composition and distinctive in their histories that ascribing their success or the economic turndown which began in 1997 to a common set of values which sets Asia apart from the West strikes me as an oversimplification. A recent survey by the Dentsu Institute for Human Studies of the importance of attributes among households in Tokyo and several other Asian capitals was compared with the results of a survey of households in New York City and the capital cities of several European countries. Charles Wolf of the Los Angeles Times analyzed the results of these two surveys, and found that "Asian values are more similar to Western values than is usually presumed. And second, for some dimensions of values, Asians diverge more from each other than they do from Americans or Western Europeans." I believe that if Asian values are interpreted narrowly, they will lead us to look backward and emphasize our differences rather than to prepare us for the challenges of the future.
 
COOPERATIVE ACTION IN THE NEXT CENTURY
 
The United States and Japan have been finding a common ground of mutual respect in cooperative action. We recognize the differences in our styles of democracy. We have initiated the Common Agenda to provide a wide range of assistance to third countries. Non-governmental organizations have significant influence in the United States, and are preparing to take on a greater role in Japan. Exchanges of citizens and students, and visits by tourists to sites as sublime as Yellowstone or Ise or as delightful as the two Disneylands alter stereotypes, and weave a web of informal ties that have become a strong fiber of bilateral cooperation which stretches across the Pacific. We know that baseball is played differently on the two sides of the Pacific, but flock to games, and relish discussions of the prowess of players and teams. Two National Basketball Association teams opened their season in Tokyo to enthusiastic crowds. And, for the first time in the history of major league baseball, two US teams──the New York Mets and the Chicago Cubs──will play their first games of the next season in Asia.
As we approach the threshold of the new century in view of the new millennium, we need to meet the challenges of globalization. While globalization can erase differences, we would do well to recall the wisdom of the honorable Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill, one of my predecessors as Speaker of the House of Representatives. He used to say, "All politics is local." The best way to cope with globalization is to use a democratic approach to nurture the values we share while careful to examine our respective traditions and to honor our differences in the spirit of mutual respect. For, I believe, our two countries have a joint obligation to lead as the oldest democracy in the Americas and the oldest democracy in Asia. The United States and Japan serve as illustrative examples of the value, the promise and the great power of shared democratic ideals. That power is, I believe, both evident and persuasive and should be a force for greater freedom and prosperity throughout the world. Together upon this solid democratic base, our two countries can certainly meet the challenges of the 21st century, whatever they may be.
Thank you for your attention. Doumo arigato gozaimasu.
 
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
 
Professor Abe: Thank you very much, Ambassador. I was quite impressed to realize that our shared value of democracy has eternal value in our future partnership. At the same time, I was also quite impressed by your intensive knowledge of our school's history.
Would you mind accepting a few questions from the floor, Ambassador?
 
QUESTION 1 (by a sophomore student of the Department of Literature): I am very inspired by your thought that the democratic approach is the best way to cope with globalization. What do you think our students should learn or do at university to improve the democratic way of thinking?
 
Ambassador: I hope that students, whatever their area of study is and whatever their future career is, will take some extra effort to participate in the public life of Japan. One of the things that has concerned me in my country and in Japan is the number of people who indicate a lack of trust in politicians and the political process. The best way to improve politicians and the political process is for citizens to be more active and engaged. The best democracies are the ones that have not just high voting rates but concerned, active and involved citizens. That is why NGOs I think are very important in the future of the democratic Japan.
 
QUESTION 2 (by a junior student majoring in law): I am very impressed with your speech. What do you think are the task and the role of Japanese people for this coming century?
 
Ambassador: Well, as I mentioned, I think the reason Japan and the United States have cooperated so impressively in the last half of this century is because we have common interests that flow from shared values. A year ago, there were people in the United States and Japan who suggested that somehow China would replace Japan over time as the closest ally and friend and partner of the United States. I think that is clearly wrong, not because the United States and Japan do not together wish to improve their relations with China - we do. But Japan and the United States have so many things in common even though a very different history and a very different culture. We have not only democratic institutions different in form but similar in substance, we have a belief in individual liberty, in human rights, in the rule of law, in civil society, in an open economy and strong support around the world for peace and stability. And those shared values have enabled Japan and the United States as the two largest economies in the world to also propagate throughout the world these values that maintain the highest aspirations of both countries. I believe we will work together in the next century as we have worked in the latter half of this century to bring about improvements not only in our own societies but to contribute dramatically to the improvement and welfare of many societies in the world. That is a proud work and a proud task and I think Japan and the United States can conduct those efforts with great success.
 
Student: Thank you very much.
 
Ambassador: I always like to talk about the Common Agenda because it gets too little attention in my country and too little attention in Japan. We are doing important things together, not so much for Americans or for Japanese, but for people in other parts of the world. We are working together to eliminate tuberculosis in East Asia, to reduce the threat of Aids, to track malaria-carrying mosquitoes with satellite technology, making lives of Africans incomparably better by eradicating Guinea worm and river blindness. In doing so many things that our technological capacities can accomplish for peoples far far away from our shores. That is something our own populations need to know more about, and it is a win-win relationship not only for Japan and the United States, but for the international community as a whole.
 
QUESTION 3 (by a junior student majoring in American and British literature): Thank you very much for your speech. I've learned how the ideal of democracy is important in the world. I also realize there are some problems in the process of gaining the democratic idea. What are the barriers that get in the way of the democratic ideal?
 
Ambassador: Winston Churchill said that democracy was the worst form of government except for every other. And he meant that all political systems have defects and democracy, of course, is no exception. It depends very much on the spirit of participation of citizens in the political system. If it becomes just a form of government and does not have the spirit of real participation and real democratic involvement, it can be as insensitive and remote and unserving of the public interest as almost any other system. So we need not only the form of democracy but some form of constitutional protection, whether the constitution is written or merely represented by tradition, so that democratic majorities do not become tyrannical and oppress and overcome the differences and the interests of minorities. I believe very much that minority rights are at the heart of democratic processes - good democratic processes. But again the great principle is involvement. So I urge all of you to engage yourself in the political process. Join a party, a political party - whatever it is. Or support candidates, be active, talk about issues, debate, advance your ideas. Nothing is more stimulating to the democratic process than the widest participation.
 
Student: Thank you very much.
 
Professor Abe: Thank you very much for your speech.
 
MESSAGE TO THE STUDENTS
 
Ambassador: One final word if I may. I want to say how I envy you. I think this is a wonderful time in your life. I would love nothing more than to be a university student again. Unfortunately, it's not possible. But there is a reason, I think, why so many strong bonds are forged among classmates at university and other school levels. Obviously there is the spirit of that fellowship and friendship that you develop at university. There is also a recognition later on that some of the most wonderful years of your life have been spent at your university. And I'm sure you will have the same experience that I had. On looking back on my university years, there is something that is obviously very nostalgic, meaning you forget all the bad things and remember only the good things. You don't remember the tensions and worries and problems. You remember only the joys and satisfactions. But, among other things, I think you will look back on these years with a sense of not only a friendship for your fellow students but with gratitude to your teachers. It is an Asian tradition, a Confucian tradition to respect scholarship and to admire and respect a "sensei." But in all cultures, when students look back on university years, they do it with a sense of great emotional gratitude and a sense of great debt to those who have given their lives to their education and advancement. And the same would be true of you. So it's always a wonderful pleasure for me to be back in a university setting again, and especially one as distinguished as this university. Thank you very much.
 
Professor Abe: Thank you very much.

 



 運営:立教大学アメリカ研究所

 製作:飯岡詩朗 syro@geocities.co.jp