講演1「Reflections on EMI in Europe: From teaching content through English to language-rich classroom experiences（ヨーロッパにおけるEMIを振り返って：英語による専門科目の教授から、豊かな言語環境の教室での新たな体験へ）」
In Europe, English-medium instruction has its roots in the late 1980s when the European Union launched its first exchange and mobility programme. English-medium instruction subsequently became an integral part of the European Higher Education Area in its effort towards compatibility and comparability of higher education systems across Europe. In this lecture, we are going to review the background of EMI since its introduction in Europe and critically review its thematic remit and expansion over the years. While initially embraced as a welcome opportunity for universities to increase their international standing, EMI has, in recent years, become an object of politicization. This development has led, in turn, to a conceptual expansion from EMI traditionally focusing on English only to the appreciation of a linguistically and culturally diverse classroom. Simultaneously, researchers began to explore the potential and boundaries of EMI as a didactic concept used to enhance foreign language experiences of students. In this lecture, we will address the following topics: Following a short historical timeline with figures illustrating the spread of EMI in Europe, we will outline an EMI competence framework developed in Switzerland (Studer 2018) which addresses different stages in the integration of language into a content classroom (classical EMI, ICLHE and CLIL). In this context, attention will be drawn to didactic concepts that lend themselves to successful teaching through English and, conversely, teaching practices will be highlighted that have proven difficult with the implementation of EMI.
講演2「EMI quality intervention programmes（EMIによる質の高いプログラム）」
With the widespread introduction of EMI, manifold practices across higher education institutions established themselves, which led to a multitude of ‘house solutions’ to local problems: some departments mandated that their lecturers spend a certain time abroad in an English-speaking environment, while others focused on their teachers taking language courses at home. While such measures were not only costly but also time-intensive, they did not guarantee the success of the implementation of English-medium programmes. Over time, language service units in HEIs developed quality intervention programmes with which a careful and phased implementation of EMI programmes could be planned, carried out and evaluated. In this lecture, we will present the rationale of our own quality intervention programmes. First, we will talk about the position of EMI within broader language and educational policy in HEIs in Switzerland, before focusing on the types of interventions we have been engaged in over the years and on the success our interventions have had.
講演3「The role of language(s) in EMI settings（EMI における言語の役割）」
There are many different settings that go under the name of EMI. For example,
•Native English speaker to non-native English learners
•Non-native English speaker to non-native English learners (same mother tongue)
•Non-native English speaker to non-native English learners (different mother tongue)
•Native English speaker to mix of native- and non-native English learners
•Non-native English speaker to mix of native- and non-native English learners
This is not a comprehensive list, but it can immediately be seen that the language of the speaker, the language(s) of the learners, and the extent to which languages are shared are all components that play a significant role in EMI. None of these settings is automatically better than the others. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but it is important to be aware of what these are in order to minimize any potential problems. In addition, the English spoken by the teacher could be a particular native-speaker variety (e.g. American English) or it could be an international variety, such as English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). This again can play an important psychological role in the setting and has a significant didactic effect. The aim of this session is to focus on the differences between these settings and to examine the potential of the interplay of languages in EMI situations. We will discuss the greater importance of a focus on successful communication (with all the different competences that this involves) in comparison with a narrow focus on accurate language use.
講演 4「Recognizing and addressing typical teaching problems in EMI（EMIで発生する典型的な問題とその対応方法）」
There can be no doubt that changing the language of communication in the university classroom adds a disruptive dimension to the typical interaction between teacher and students. This disruptive element is not a negative one unless the teacher fails to recognize the various aspects that are involved in this change. The problems that teachers typically encounter often stem from this failure to recognize that, amongst other things, a) communication is about more than just language b) language is about more than just accuracy c) every content lecture, regardless of the language of delivery, involves teaching language to the students d) the language and skills that must be considered are not just the teacher’s but also the students’and e) didactic skills have priority in every classroom.
The training and coaching that we offer in Switzerland focus on identifying and helping to solve problems that arise when teachers are faced with this change in the language of the classroom. This often involves highlighting both negatives (e.g. where and why communication breaks down, where and why interaction may not flow to the same extent as in the mother-tongue teaching situation, reduced teacher personality) and positives (e.g. more co-operative spirit in the classroom, more international flavor in the classroom, enhanced teacher personality).
The aim of this session is to identify potential pitfalls arising from a switch to English-medium instruction and ways in which these pitfalls can be avoided. Forewarned is forearmed!
チューリッヒ応用科学大学応用言語学科教授（Professor of Applied Linguistics, School of Applied Linguistic, Zurich University of Applied Sciences）
パトリック・スツゥダー 氏（ Dr. Patrick Studer）
2005年チューリッヒ大学（University of Zurich）より博士号（Dr. phil. (Ph.D.)）を取得、専門は言語学、メディア研究、談話分析、文体論。
ポール・ケリー 氏（Mr. Paul Kelly）
1993年チューリッヒ応用科学大学英語教育講師（English Language Lecturer）
2018年英語教育学科長（Head of English Language section）、チューリッヒ応用科学大学応用言語学部の翻訳・通訳部門の責任者
Reflections on EMI in Europe: From teaching content through English to language-rich classroom experiences
EMI quality intervention programmes
The role of language(s) in EMI settings
Recognizing and addressing typical teaching problems in EMI
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